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- Measuring Aspects of Personality – Psychology Essay
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In , he defined various kinds of personalities which he referred to as dispositions. He argued that traits had actual physical position in the nervous system and thus, consistency of the behavior depended on the existence of traits. He further stated that cardinal traits are those that are powerfully recognized. In addition, other contributors to the Big Five personality theory are Ernest Tupes and Raymond Cristal, who provided the basis for the Big Five personality factors in the late s.
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The two scholars developed comprehensive, empirical research findings that identified the traits and classified them into various categories Engler, Significant contributions to the model were made by Raymond Cattell. His findings structurally divided the personality traits by identifying primary and secondary factors that define personality structure. The primary factors consist of 16 personality factors and the secondary structure made of five personality factors.
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Cattell developed the major personality factors analysis of an individual and various groups of people. Cattell used complex statistical analysis and primary correlations of traits and described them using simple language. Goldberg developed the Big Five personality factors using lexical hypothesis. In he singled out the Big Five traits from a cluster of traits he had been analyzing from the previous personality traits researchers.
He analyzed different group of traits, found the correlations, and came up with the five trait factors: extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness. He used factor analysis in identifying the relationships between the various traits scores. McCrae and Costa in further developed the Big Five Personality Model by primarily showing the supposed dissimilarity in personality schemes. To further this they created an integrated model that effectively incorporated other personality schemes and invented the acronym OCEAN for the five factors.
The method of inquiry used by the Big Five personality model involves conducting self-analysis by filling in questionnaires that describe various traits Boyle et al. McCrae and Costa developed questionnaires that generally describe the standard personality.
Measuring Aspects of Personality – Psychology Essay
The Goldberg questionnaires use lexical hypothesis approach which emphasizes that individual difference is noticeable and socially appropriate. On the other hand, McCrae and Costa questionnaire uses the renowned FFM theoretical context, according to which traits are located in a comprehensive model of environmental and genetic context Engler, The Goldberg model is circular and shows that many elements have none zero correlations on two factors, while in the FFM traits are classified from low-level features that combine to form higher levels. The questionnaires comprise adjectives and sentences that describe various traits.
The proponents of the use of questionnaires in assessing personality claim that questionnaires give an important projective testing. The current questionnaire consists of items that can be filled in by an individual in approximately 45 minutes. The individual carries out self-assessment based on particular items, thereby individual traits of a person are identified Boyle et al.
The Big Five personality model has strengths such as its ability to define personality. It clearly helps in giving cross-cultural analysis since it agrees with most cultures. In addition, it can be used to identify personal traits of both adults and children, even those children who are not at school. The Big Five personality model is consistent with many other theories.
For example, the model corresponds with other analytical methods and complement them naturally. Hence, the compatibility of the model with other theories gives it wide relevance to various fields Nevid, In addition, the Big Five model fails to clarify why some traits are temporary while others are long lasting; this is another demerit of the model.
For instance, some relations are rather counterintuitive hence making extrapolation using common sense difficult. Studies showed that traits such as optimism and ambitiousness have low correlation with conscientiousness Engler, Trait encompasses all aspects of how individuals perceive, believes and feels about things.
This is what distinguishes individuals from one another. Although different theories have been developed by different people, they all base on the following assumptions: people genetically inherit traits from their biological parents; some traits are predominantly suited for leadership; and people who make good leaders have the correct if not sufficient combination of traits Digman, It is through these assumptions that this theory has formed a good basis for selection of leaders thus a very important discipline in management.
Though the theory is new, the five factor model has proved to be one of the most practical and applicable model in studying human personality and has thus been accorded critical attention Digman Extroversion is a trait marked by pronounced interest in individuals outside world. Extroverts are very social, adventurous and have high confidence for establishing the unknown Ewen, Character traits associated with extroversion include talkativeness, assertiveness, excitability, sociability, and increased emotional expression.
Knowing the self is molded from three perspectives continuation in, and the depth of, knowing the self is brought about through the study of personality. Regardless of…… [Read More]. Personality Psychology the Narcissim and Borderline Conduct. Help, Am I a Narcissist? That article talks about how in the American culture today, mental distress is a big deal. The author also add that personality disorders are another issue that people are dealing with today.
Each appear to have leaked from the offices of psychiatrists into the general talks. The author made a good point that people usually think of themselves in labels. For example, rather than being sad, a lot of times people are depressed. The author then hits the main topic…… [Read More]. Personality Theories. Personality Theories Psychologists have described personality as specific way of feeling, thinking and self-conduct Mcleod, of an individual.
Personality is the constantly changing system in the minds of individuals and made up of specific psychological traits that influence their specific self-conduct and thinking. Personality is the combination of behavior that distinguishes a person. The personality of a person is affected by genetic and biological factors as well as factors such as upbringing, environment etc.
The Big Five Factors Personality Model Essay Example
Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory This theory of personality believes that our differing personalities arise from the communication between what Sigmund Freud…… [Read More]. References Out of Service. The Big Five Personality Test. Out of Service.
Life Span Development 13th ed. New York: McGraw Hill. Works Cited: Cox, B. Anxiety sensitivity and the five-factor model of personality.
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Behavior Research and Therapy. Hartman, R. The five factor model and career self-efficacy: General and domain-specific relationships. Journal of Career Assessment. Matthews, G. Emotional intelligence, personality and task-induced stress. Journal of Exp Psychol Appl.http://touch.juan.dev3.develag.com/vivir-sin-reglas-periodismo-independencia-e.php
Page, J. Role of perfectionism and five-factor model traits in career indecision. Personality and Individual Differences. References Griffin, R. Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations 10th ed. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning. Hellriegel, D.